Also, in the interior regions of Antarctica after 1941, either cooling or no temperature trend was observed. At the South Pole Amundsen-Scott Station, from 1957 to 2000, the temperature decreased by approximately 1.5°C, (37,46) although the CO2 concentrations increased there during this period from 313.7 (31) to less than 360 ppmv (See Surface Temperature And Carbon Dioxide At The South Pole). The decrease of temperature may be related to the El Nino oscillation, (47) and to the decline in the amount of solar radiation reaching Antarctica (0.28 watt per square meter per year between 1959 and 1988). (48)
On the global scale, the most objective measurements of the temperature in the lower troposphere, conducted since 1979 by American satellites (with no interference from "heat islands"), indicated up to 1998 not a climate warming, but rather a modest cooling (-0.14°C per decade— see Global Temperature Anomalies ). In 1999, the temperature rose because of the El Nino effect (cyclic variations in the sea current flowing from the Antarctic, along Chile and Peru, to the equator), changing the 1979-2003 trend into a slight warming. However, since 1994, the satellite data show a deep cooling of the stratosphere.