A celebrated French ducal family deriving its title from the town of Guise in Aisne. The first duke (Claude, 1490-1550) distinguished himself in the service of Francis I.— his daughter married James V. of Scotland and was mother of Mary Queen of Scots. The second (Francis, 1519-1563) rose to high eminence as a soldier, and was virtual ruler of France under the feeble rule of Francis II., setting himself to crush Protestantism; in this he was helped by his brother Charles (1524-1574), Cardinal of Lorraine, perhaps the ablest of the family. Francis's son Henry (1550-1588) rigorously persecuted the Huguenots and was a party to the Massacre of St. Bartholomew; his designs on the French crown led to his assassination. His grandson (Henry II., 1614-1664) was the opponent of Richelieu, and finally became Grand Chamberlain to Louis XIV.

Note by A.J.Grieve (MA), from The Achievement of France in Part One of Reflections On The Revolution In France
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