M. Crassus, the triumvir, invaded Parthia, without just reason, but was defeated and killed at Carrhae in Mesopotamia in 53 B.C., and Roman eagles were lost. Later, the Parthians took the offensive under Pacorus, son of their king, Orodes. But he was defeated and slain at Mt. Gindarus in Syria, 38 B.C., by P. Ventidius Bassus, an able but low-born lieutenant of Mark Antony.
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