The naphtha, the oleum incendiarium of the history of Jerusalem (Gest. Dei per Francos, p. 1167), the Oriental fountain of James de Vitry (l. iii. c. 84), is introduced on slight evidence and strong probability. Cinanmus (l. vi. p. 165) calls the Greek fire and the naphtha is known to abound between the Tigris and the Caspian Sea. According to Pliny(Hist. Natur. ii. 109), it was subservient to the revenge of Medea, and in either etymology the or (Procop. de Bell. Gothic. l. iv. c. 11), may fairly signify this liquid bitumen.