Two Kinds Of Morality Supply Two Kinds Of Understanding
Morality is the essence of understanding and thus life, but there are two kinds of morality— selfish and unselfish — and these obtain two different understandings:
An Unselfish Understanding Is Sane
An Unselfish understanding worships a set of values that place the common good ahead of self. Tradition dictates that maintaining and interpreting this set of values is the role of the church, so supplying a common and clear understanding of what is right and what is wrong, free from the prejudice of private desires, which is sanity. Hence
Sanity — is the ability to recognize right from wrong independently of private feelings by reference to the dictates of the church. This in turn allows:
Rational Thinking — Disciplined to resist the influence of private feelings and so allow acceptance of truths that contradict fears and fancies.
Self-Sacrifice — Recognition of the need to sacrifice self for the benefit of others.
— two qualities that must obtain the notions of:
Duty: what a citizen should and should not do, regardless of private feelings; which in turn creates a sense of Honour — striving to be dutiful.
Justice: the belief that the dutiful be rewarded while the undutiful are punished.
Truth: the recognition of cause and effect free from the corruption of fears and fancies, which is an essential requirement of duty and justice.
Knowledge: the correct and exact recording of events obtained by the accumulation of truth.
A Sense Of Immortality: — Implicit in our personal acceptance of a social code is the notion that we are of less importance than the community; this means that we consider our personal well being inferior to the needs of the society. This allows us to face the prospect of death with some equanimity, because even though we know each one of us must eventually die, the most important thing — the community — survives.
A Single Shared Understanding — A Community
The result of sanity is a shared understanding— a Community: by being independent of the personal feelings of an individual a single set of values can be adopted by a group to form a single communal understanding, which allows them to act as one creature, an animal that is much stronger and cleverer than its individual members as it is empowered by:
Knowledge: the discoveries of cause and effect allowed by observation free from the corruption of private fears and fancies, are shared and remembered by all and so allow the creation of a rapidly increasing body of accurate information.
Common Purpose: the promotion of the well-being of all citizens. This gives us the will to resist, along with the determination to prevent, the accidents of life. Famine, pestilence, wars and natural disasters become inspirations for effort and activity, a spur to keep improving our technology and so protect our society.
Institutions: Enhanced by accumulated knowledge, empowered by public order, and inspired by duty, the society can organize itself to better win its objects by creating institutions. Observe all the institutions formed by the society first exist in citizens' minds, which makes the organization of society a reflection of the understanding of its citizens.
The common purpose achieved through its institutions empowered by its knowledge is the wisdom of the community, which must insensibly become its tradition, hence:
Tradition is the WISDOM of the community and its citizens.
A Selfish Understanding Is Insane
A selfish understanding worships only self, which makes it a slave of its feelings where right is what private feelings desire and wrong is what private feelings dislike. As feelings change with mood and circumstances, so must judgement, which can never be predictable or rational; which is insanity. Hence:
Insanity — is the inability to recognize right from wrong independently of private feelings, which obtains:
Irrational Thinking — As private feelings rule reason, so truth becomes what fears and fancies demand.
Self-Seeking The pursuit of immediate gratification regardless of others.
— two qualities that must corrupt the notions of:
Duty as it becomes doing what private fears and fancies demand, thereby licensing all behaviour and lacking any sense of Honour.
Justice being what the fears and fancies of the understanding demand from others.
Truth as observation becomes the servant of private fears and fancies.
Knowledge The corruption of truth results in the accumulation of delusions and superstition.
A Sense Of Impending Doom — Implicit in selfishness is the realisation that the most valuable thing, self, is doomed to die. This means the selfish are haunted by notions of inevitable universal catastrophe that destroys everything.
No Single Shared Understanding — No Tradition, Only Insane Citizens Forming An Insane Community
The impact of which must destroy any existing Community by inhibiting all achievements, allowing only the exploitation and destruction of the actual achievements of others, as:
Knowledge: is replaced by superstition as observation of cause and effect becomes corrupted by popular fears and fancies.
Common Purpose: becomes the mass hysteria won by the unrestrained shared fears and fancies of the majority of deluded citizens, which can only exhaust communal resources in pursuing fantasies as it ignores real dangers and opportunities.
Institutions: become the inept servants of communal delusion, further corrupted by the pursuit of short-term private reward by their executives.
The Sanity Test
As the insane have no way of judging right from wrong except by their feelings, a simple test of sanity is the question:
How do you recognise right from wrong independently of your feelings?
Unless the truthful answer is a traditional religion, then insanity is demonstrated.
Conclusion Sanity gives a clear meaning to life and wins wealth though knowledge, but it forces its devotees into a constant struggle to control their emotions as they suppress appetites that conflict with traditional morality. Whereas Insanity imposes only the restraints of convenience on behaviour, otherwise licensing every animal urge, but it cannot supply any long term meaning to life and incurs poverty through delusion.